Azerbaijan Republic is rich of fuel ore and non-ore minerals. Ore and non-ore minerals are spread mostly in mountainous territories (Small and Great Caucasus) of republic, fossil fuels in plain territories and South Caspian basin. In its turn, it caused development of ore industry in west and oil-gas industry in east.

Fossil-fuel resources

Fossil-fuel resources in Azerbaijan are presented by oil, gas, oil shale, peat etc. Petroleum industry is the most important sector of local economy. Oil is produced from both onshore and Caspian offshore oilfields. Azerbaijan (particularly Absheron Peninsula) is referred to as the world's most ancient oil producing region. Even during VII-VI centuries BC oil had been extracted within Absheron Peninsula and exported to many different countries. As of 1985 about 1.2B tons of crude oil has been produced in Azerbaijan (25% of which fall at offshore oilfields). Azerbaijan crude is the high quality oil attributed with low sulfur and low paraffin content. Oil density varies significantly in the range from 780 to 940kg/cu m. Azerbaijan produces the unique, medical oil from Maykop and Akchagil deposits within the Naftalan oilfield.

Azerbaijan also produces hydrocarbon gases. Those gases fall into 3 groups: oil-soluble, free (gas cap) and pure gases. During the last 35-50 years many gas-condensate deposits have been found and developed. Currently, there are 8 oil/gas regions (Absheron, Shamahy-Gobustan, Lower Kur River trough, Baku Archipelago, Ganja, Kur-Gabirry interfluve) and two hydrocarbon potential areas (Ajinohur and Jalilabad) in Azerbaijan. The main hydrocarbon producing formation within Absheron, Absheron, Shamahy-Gobustan, Lower Kur River trough and Baku Archipelago is Productive Series deposits. Productive Series consist of sand, sandstone and shale deposit intercalation and exceed 4000m thick (in some places even more thicker). Oilfields associated with Productive series (Balakhany-Sabunchi-Ramany, Surakhany, Garachukhur-Zikh, Gala, Bibi-Heybat, Neft Dashlary, Puta, 28 May, Lock-Batan - Binagady, Sangachal-daniz, Duvanny-daniz - Bulla, Bulla-daniz etc,) are multilayered anticline features. The largest oil-gas-condensate fields are located within Absheron, Baku Archipelago, and Lower Kur River trough regions. Beside Productive Series, oil-gas charged formations within areas under development are Maykop suite, Eocene stage, and Upper Cretaceous deposits. Oil deposits associated with Siazan monocline within Guba-near Caspian petroleum region produces oil from all stratigraphic oil-charged units ranging from Sarmatian stage up to Upper Cretaceous deposits (Sarmatian, Chkrak, Maykop suite, Eocene, Paleogene, Upper Cretaceous deposits).

Oil deposits discovered within Kur-Gabirry interfluve are associated with oil and gas charged Eocene deposits (Tarsdallar area).

Metalliferous ore resources

Those mineral resources (iron, aluminum, chromite, tin, zinc, cobalt-ores, molibdenite-ores) occurs in various ore deposits.

Metalliferous ores (magnetite, hematite) in Azerbaijan fall into four generic classes: magmatic segregation, skarn-magnetite (contact-metasomatic), hydro-termal- metasomatic and sedimentary ones. Among them only skarn-magnetite type Dashcasan ore-bearing region contains commercial ore-deposits: Dashcasan, South Dashcasan and "Damir". Those deposits are embodied within Bathonian, Callovian, Kimmeridgian volcanic formations, pyroclastic and volcanic-sedimentary deposits and thought to be associated and generated within granitoid intrusion exocontact that sunders Dashcasan synclinorium along its hinge line. Dashcasan iron ore commercial reserves (estimated by A+B+C categories) amount to 250M tons. Dashcasan iron ore deposits serve as an ore market for metallurgical industry within the south Caucasus region. Rustavi (Georgia) metallurgical plant is being supplied by Dashcasan ore deposits. Hematite iron ores has been discovered within Alabashly area, currently its ore deposits are being estimated.

Cobalt ore commercial accumulations (cobalt, glaucodot) are known within Dashcasan ore-bearing region. Here, cobalt ores had been formed both as separate (Ashagy Dashcasan ore deposit) and over the skarn-magnetite ores, as well as they has paragenetic associations with diabaze, diabaze-porphyrite dikes. Cobalt ores shows also have been met within Nakhchivan Autonomous Republic.

Chromite ore deposits and their shows (Goydara, Kazimbinasy, Epack, Khatavang etc) are predominantly located within Calbajar and Lachin regions. Chromite ore available reserves are thought to be getetically associated with Minor Caucasus ophiolite ultrabasite rocks (dunite, peridotite), however, do not fit current commercial requirements.

Small manganese ore deposits and shows are known within Minor Caucasus Somheti-Aghdam (Mollajalilli, Gash Salahly etc) and Araz (Bichanak, Alahi) structure-formation terranes.

Copper ores in Azerbaijan Republic are associated with copper-pyrite and copper-porphyry formations. Basically, copper-pyrite formation's ore mineral composition consists of pyrite and chalcopyrite. Frequently, copper ores contain such minerals as sphalerite and galena. Also, copper-porphyry formations' ores contain such metals as molibdenum, and negligible amount of noble metals. Both formation ores are associated with secondary quarzite pervasive within Gedabay ore-bearing region. Copper-porphyry ores are more pervasive. Besides, Garadagh and Khar-Khar ore deposits (Gedabay ore-bearing region) there are many other copper-porphyry formation's ore shows. There are stok-geometry Gedabay copper-pyrite ore-bearing deposits which reserves are quite exhausted within Gedabay region.

Copper-porphyry ore shows have also been met within Mehmana ore-bearing region (Damirchi, Khachinchay).

Copper-porphyry ore shows have also been met within Nakhchivan AR. Copper-porphyry are shows are dominantly located within Mehri-Ordubad granitoid batholite's exo- and endocontact zones (Diakhchay, Goygol, Goydagh etc). Khal-Khal copper-pyrite show is genetically associated with sub-volcanic rocks has also been met within Nakhchivan AR.

Tin-zinc commercial ore deposits are known within the Great Caucasus Balacan-Zagatala metalliferous ore-bearing zone (Filizchay, Katekh, Kasdagh etc). There are a lot of copper ores and other extractable impurities (cadmium, cobalt etc) within those ore deposits. Those elements' ore deposits and mineralization shows are known within Minor Caucasus (Mehmana, Aghdara, and Gumushlu).

Molybdenium copper-porphyry and vein type ore deposits and mineralizations are known in the region. Molybdenum ore shows are known within Dalidagh ore-bearing region (Teymurujandagh, Baghirsagh etc). Molybdenum Paragachay ore deposits is under development within Ordubad ore-bearing region. Paragachay molybdenum ore deposit is genetically associated with Mehri-Ordubag granitoid batholite. That ore deposit supplies the same name dressing plant. Molybdenum ores have also been met within Gedabay (Khar-Khar, Garadagh).

The largest aluminum ore deposits (alunite) is situated within Dashcasan region (Zaylik alunite ore deposit). Alunite minealization shows have also been met within Shankir and Ordubad regions. Zaylik alunite ore deposits have been under development since 1960, That ore deposit is the biggest one in Europe. Ganja aluminum plant uses that ore to produce aluminum oxide along with potacium fertilizer, soda, sulphuric acid etc.

Bauxite ores that is referred to as the best aluminum row material, display its mineralization shows within Permian deposit site within Nakhchivan AR.

Mercuric ore deposits and its minaralization shows are pervasive within the Minor Caucasus central part (Kalbajar- Lachin zone). Mercuric ore reserves contained within the largest ore deposits as Agh-Yatagh, Shor-Bulag, Levchay (Kalbajar region), Jilgaz-chay, and Narzanly (Lachin region) are under estimation. Mercuric mineralization (Cinnebar) has been met within ultrabasic, to Miocene-Pliocene acid magmatic rocks as well as withi various age and composition, basically, Upper Cretaceous volcanic-sedimentary rocks. Cinnabar ores occur in association with pyrite, copper-pyrite, antimonite, magnetite, hematite sphalerite etc. Minerals.

Antomony does not generate stand alohe ore deposits. Antimony minerals form ore accumulations within Levchay mercuric ore deposit.

Daridagh arsenic ore deposit (Nakhchivan AR) demonstrates many non-commercial mineralization shows within its area. The largest arsenic ore deposits in Azerbaijan Republic have been met within Gedabay (Bitibulagh enargite ore deposit) and Julpha (Daridagh red orpiment-realgar).

Daridagh deposit is encased within Paleogene carbonate as well as tuffaceous-sedimentary deposits. That arsenic ore deposit had been developed untill 1941. Arsenic ore body has a stok-shape geometry. Ore's mineralic composition consists of red orpiment, realgar, antimony, arsenopyrite, arsenic melnicovite, and pitticite minerals.

Tingsten occurs like small scheelite mineralzation shows are met within Ordubad and Kalbachar regions, Mehry-Ordubad Dalidagh granitoid pluton's exocontacts.

Tin ores (cassiterite) are observed within the Minor Caucasus Ordubad region at Gizil chingilly, Gilit-Ketam areas like skarn and metasomatic mineralization shows.

Non metallic mineral resources

Non-metallic mineral resources play a significant role in Azerbaijan Republic total balance of row material resources. That group of row materials includes rock salt, gypsum, anhydrite, alm, bentonite clay, construction mateials, pyrite borate, precious and semi-precious stone, dolomite, Iceland spar etc.

Rock salt deposits are located within Nakhchivan AR (Nehram, Pusyan). Those deposits are embodied within Miocene sandstone, shale, limestone, and marl deposits. Nehram deposit rock salt reserves estimated on B+C categories amounts to 73,600M tons, and as much as 64,200M tons on C2 category. Rock salt potential reserves have been estimated as much as 2.0-2.5B tons, and 37,810M tons on C2 category. Besides, rock salt reserves there are small sedimentary salt deposits in Azerbaijan.

Gypsum, anhydrite and alm deposits are located within Goranboy region (Jukhary Aghjacand; gypsum and anhydrite) some 120km southeast off Nakhchivan town (Araz, gypsum) as well as around Ganja town (alm) etc.

Those deposits commercial resources estimated on A+B+C categories amounts to 40,632M tons.

There are a lot of bentonite clay deposits and their shows. The biggest of them has been discovered within Gazah region (Dash Salahly) which commercial reserves estimate amounts to 84,553M tons.

Azerbaijan has many construction material deposits. Building sawn stone-block deposits (Gozdak, Dovlatyarly, Dilagarda, Shahbulag, Naftalan, Mardacan, Dash Salahly, Zayam, Aidagh, which hitherto, estimated commercial reserves (on A+B+C categories amounts to 295,836M tons, whereas facing stone (Gulbaht, Dashcasan, Shahtahty, Gulably etc amounts to 23,951M tons.

There is a stripping quarry near the Garadagh settment that supplies row material to the same name cement plant. Row materials needed for burn brick production and drilling operations are produced from numerous quarries. There are tuff and andesite-basalt quarries within the Minor Caucasus region. Volcanic zeolit tuff quarry is located 7km north off Tovuz town. Aidagh volcanic tuffs are reported to be 25-30m thick formation occurring among Santonian-Campanian carbonate deposits. It is identifies that those tuffs contain silica inriched 20-80% zeolite (clinoptilolite). Average zeolite content within that deposit amounts to 55%. Estimated potential reserve of Aidagh tuffs amount to 20 - th tons.

Large-scale pyrite ore deposits are located within Khanlar (Chiragidzor-Toganaly group), Gedabay, Balacan, and Zagatala (Filizchay, Kasdagh, Katehchay etc). Pyrite ore deposits are located within Khanlar and Gedabay regions and associated with Middle Jurassic volcanic and volcanic sedimentary deposits. Pyrite ore deposits found within Balacan and Zagatala regions are associated with Lower Jurassic deposits. About 20 barite ore deposits and minaralization shows are known in Azerbaijan (Chovdar, Bashgishlag, Gusgchu, Tonashen, Zaylik, Azad, Chaycand etc). Those ore deposits occur in numerous veins within Middle Jurrassic volcanic rocks.

Semi-precious and precious minerals (gems) s reported to be associated with Minor Caucasus Dashcasan and Ordubad skarn ore deposits (granite, garnet, amethyst), turmalin - within Gedabay regin, as well as chalcedony, agate and heliotrop encased within Santonian volcanic rocks.

Agate deposits within Hajicand and Gazah troughs' basic and intermediate Upper Cretaceous volcanic rocks occur in forms of secretion, pocket, amigdule, vein and lenses. There are both jewelry and technical gems within Hajicand and Gazah troughs. Hajicand agate deposits group is considered to be of commercial value which reserves have estimated as much as 286,8 tons. Of them 65.8 tons are referred to as jewelry gems.

Dolomite large-scale deposits have been discovered nearby Nehram village (Nakhchivan AR) and Boyanata (Gobustan)

Quarz sands are used as a row material for glass production. Their deposits are associated with Miocene-Pliocene deposits in Gobustan, Absheron Peninsula and Guba region. Those sand reserves are estimated as much as 10-th tons.

Iceland spar shows (Nagorny Karabakh etc) and lithographic stone deposits (Miricand, Nagorny Karabakh etc) also manifest significant reserves.

Chemical paints shows have been met within Shamahy, Kalbajar and Khanlar regions.

Medical mud has been reported within Absheron Peninsula, Masazir Lake, Gobustan and Lower Kur River trough areas where mud volcanoes outbursts are pervasive.