The territory of the Republic of Azerbaijan forms a constituent geological part of the Alpine folded belt. Sedimentary deposits embracing the southwestern parts of the Major and Minor Caucasus, including the intermountain Kur-River trough, as well as the Mid- and South Caspian basins consist of diversity fold systems. The Earth's crust thickness in Azerbaijan varies in the range from 38 to 55 km. Its maximum thickness is observed in the Minor Caucasus area, while its minimum thickness is typical for the Talysh foothills. Geological setting of the area consists of sedimentary, volcanic-sedimentary, volcanic and terrestrial deposits embracing almost entire stratigraphic range beginning from pre-Cambrian period up to Holocene time.

Mesozoic and Cenozoic eugeosynclinal, miogeosynclinal and molasse deposits are most ubiquitous among the others. As for Paleozoic sub-cratonic and the Alpine pre-Cambrian-Paleozoic metamorphic deposits occupy much smaller areas.

The Great Caucasus meganticlinorium, the Kur River intermontane trough and the Minor Caucasus megasynclinorium constitute the principle structural systems in Azerbaijan. The Major Caucasus meganticlinorium has very intricate structural architecture embracing ancient geologic features along with those generated recently. All constituent structures of the Major Caucasus meganticlinorium abruptly plunge towards the Caspian basin and terminate entirely within the coastal area.

The Yavandag-Sangachal gravity maximum is suggested to be a buried extension of the Vandam anticlinorium within the Shamahy-Gobustan synclinorium. Here, within Girdiman and Aghsu River interfluve Maykop deposits are overlain by thick (1500m) Cretaceous (Dibrar facies) deposits, referred to as the Baskal nappe with a 10km horizontal offset. Westward, within Mazim and Girdimanchay Rivers interfluve most of the southern part of the Vandam anticlinorium consists of sheet-like pebble deposits.

The Kur River intermontane trough has been developed over a long geologic time span. However, its recent geometry was shaped only during the Oligocene-Quaternary time span. Kur River trough is considered to be an inherited structure, so the uppermost sedimentary fill uncomfortably overlies the base structural complex. The Kur River trough is divided into two sub-basins by transversal uplifts; The Middle Kur River subbasin (Upper Kur River subbasin is located in Georgia) and The Lower Kur River ones.

The Minor Caucasus southeast trending foredeep trough is extended parallel to the Minor Caucasus Somhety-Aghdam zone. Its overburden consists of Paleogene flysch type deposits and Neogene-Antropogenic molasse formations; its northwest border is observed along Kur-River fault clearly visible up to Yevlah town, and along a flexure extended between Barda-Beylagah line, although foredeepwest border is limited by pre-Minor Caucasus fault, its southwest border is twisting (meandering).

Talish fold zone represents ingneous extension of the Minor Caucasus central part. Talish fold system rests upon the pre-Alpinr tansversally uplifted basement and consists of the Uppe Cretaceous thin carbonate formation and Paleogene_- Lower Eocene flysch deposits, Middle Eocene traxybasalts and Oligocene flysch deposits. Small intrusive bodies are incased within Paleogene deposits and referred to potasium basalts, gabbro-diorite and gabbro-monzonite-syenite formations, and jointly with incasing volcanic rocks they generate a single whole magmatic complex. The following structural features as Astara and Jalilabad synclinoriums, ruptures, overthrusts which have been intricately complicated by transversally uplifted and down thrown blocks.