CLIMATE TYPES

Taking into consideration distribution and features of regime of weather temperature and atmosphere precipitations, as well humidity circumstance in Azerbaijan Republic, 8 of 11 climate patterns of the Earth (according to V.V.Keppen) are determined here. Many of these patterns are divided into semi-types.

1. Semi-desert and dry steppe climate covers mainly Central lowland districts (fields in Kur concavity, height of which is up to 400m), Caspian zone from end of Samur River to Gizilagaj gulf, plains of Nakhchivan AR along the Araz river, closed mountainous concavities of Talish Mountains (from 1000m). Annual precipitations make 15-50% of possible evaporation. Winter is mostly hot (cold in plains along the Araz River and closed mountainous concavities of Talish Mountains). Summer is red-hot, some days temperature is higher than 40 degree.

2. Mild-hot climate, winter if which is dry, covers lower mountainous zone (in height up to 1000m) of south hills of Great Caucasus, Ganikh-Eyrichay concavity (200-500m), north and east hills of Small Caucasus (in height of 400-1500m). Annual precipitations make 50-100% of possible evaporation. Winter is mild, with low precipitations, summer is mild-hot.

3. Mild-hot climate with dry summer. Mostly covers Lankaran-Astara region. Annual precipitations make 100-150% and more of possible evaporation. Winter is mild, summer is mild-hot and dry, autumn with high precipitations. It rains less from May till mid of August and this season is dry often, artificial irrigation is applied.

4. Cold climate with dry winter covers south-east hills of Great Caucasus (1000-2700m) and middle and high mountainous parts of Small Caucasus (1400-2700m). Annual precipitations make 75-100% of possible evaporation. Summer is cool, winter is mild.

5. Cold climate with dry summer. Covers middle and high mountainous area of Nakhchivan AR (1000-3000m). Annual precipitations make 50-100% of possible evaporation. Winter is cold and snowy, summer is cool.

6. Mild-hot climate with equal distribution of precipitations covers mountainous forestlands in south (600-1500m) and north-east (200-500m) hills of Great Caucasus. Annual precipitations make 75-100% of possible evaporation in south hills and 50-100% in north-east hills. Winter is mild, summer is mild-hot.

7. Cold climate with rich precipitations in all seasons is characteristic for south hills of Great Caucasus only (1500-2700m). Covers upper forest, subalpine and alpine zones. Annual precipitations are more than 150-200% of possible evaporation. Winter is cold, summer is cool.

8. Mountainous tundra climate covers the areas of Great and Small Caucasus higher than 2700m and of Nakhchivan AR higher than 3200m. Annual precipitations are more than 100-200% of possible evaporation. Winter and summer are cold. In some places snow does not melt till the next winter.