HISTORY OF MOTOR TRANSPORT

The history of motor transport in Azerbaijan dates back to the early 20th century. Azerbaijan accounted for only 36 cars in 1911, while the length of paved roads totaled 210 kilometers.

The motor park mainly designed for technological and special purposes of oil industry were established in 1920-1930.

The country accounted for 896 cars in 1926, including 275 motor cars, 518 trucks and 103 specialized cars. Over 400 trucks were owned by Azneft.

The expansion of motor cars caused the prolongation of the roads. The total length of roads amounted to 6500 kilometers at that period including 2300 kilometers of union and republican roads.

The establishment of quick car production was necessary for the satisfaction of growing demands for transport in the rapidly developing industry, agriculture, defense and other spheres of the country. Due to that a common motor transport unification named Soyuztrans was established in the Republic in 1935-1936. The car groups engaged in the passenger conveyance and cargo transportation operated within the unification.

The National Motor Transport Commissariat was established in 1939 ( 600-800 cars) and the said commissariat turned into the Transport Ministry in 1946. At that period the Ministry had a very poor technical and financial basis and the transport enterprises were created only in big cities (Baku, Ganja and Yevlakh) and a number of regional centers (Guba, Goychay, Lenkeran and other). These transport enterprises mainly engaged in the passenger conveyance. The Transport Ministry attached a great deal of attention to the specialists training mainly for drivers training for its enterprises. A Baku car school was created in the late 1940s for the purpose.

Yet at that period the development prospects of the transport complex was not used completely like in other USSR states and in most cases the cargoes were still transported by railways even on short distances. The application of the new methods in motor transport operation, the state of centralized cargo and container transportations and the level of technical maintenance of cars did not correspond to the requirements.

The car parks that was controlled by the City Transport department under the Executive Committee of the National Deputies Council of Baku were transferred to the Transport Ministry to meet the great demand for the passenger conveyance and a passenger conveyance department was created on its basis. As the result of the attention of the Central Committee and the government of the republic and the efforts of the Transport Ministry the material and technical basis of the transport enterprises engaged in passenger conveyance passed a great development period in 1970-1986. The application of advanced technology for the operation of modern and large buses and the fulfillment of technical services, installation of lifting and other garage equipment, the establishment of newly centralized technical maintenance stations, construction of modern bus parks enabled to meet the demands for the passenger conveyance in the capital.

The attention to the transportation of the workers of large industrial enterprises to and from work in big industrial cities as Ganja, Sumgayit, Mingechevir, Yevlakh, Ali-Bayramly, Nakhichevan and Khankendi and the intercity passenger conveyance increased. The intercity passenger conveyance was arranged by the routes Baku-Tbilisi, Baku-Makhachkala, Baku-Grozny, Baku-Minvod. Due to that a local intercity bus park for 270 places was constructed and commissioned in the Narimanov district of Baku in 1970. The country accounted for 412 intercity routes in 1986 with 10 former USSR routes.

At the same time a number of modern bus stations corresponding to the passengers' demands were constructed and commissioned in different cities of the country. It is possible to single out the bus station with the catering complex of Gazakh city and the special coach stations in Salyan, Sheki, Shemakha, Djalilabad, Yevlakh, Naftalan, Zagatala and other cities and the reconstruction of the existing parks. The multistoried garage building of Baku taxi park No 1 was commissioned in the mid 1970s. Multistoried Taxi Park No 5 for 650 motor cars was commissioned in the Darnagul district present Binagadi region of Baku in 1980. The park was one of the distinguished parks for its production architecture and culture as well as the financial and technical basis.

Thus the enterprises controlled by the Transport Ministry carried out the activity important for the cargo and passenger conveyance. That is reflected in the information provided by the State Statistical Committee. The volume of cargo transportation amounted to 157.7 million tons including 14.2 million of 9% by the motor transport in 1960, while in 1986 the motor transport enterprises of the Ministry accounted for 148.5 million tons or 27.2% of 546,7 million tons of cargo transportation in the country. As is seen, the volume of cargo transportation rose by 10 within the reported period.

Transport system in the country were the priority in the activity of the Ministry.

The motor transport means included 16000 trucks , 7600 motor (taxi) cars and 5800 buses in 1992.

Beginning from 1995 the Ministry initiated the development of the necessary documents for the privatization of the transport enterprises, except for those on the lands occupied by Armenians in cooperation with the State Property Committee in accordance with the State Program for the privatization of the state property of the Republic of Azerbaijan. At present it is possible to say that almost all the transport enterprises have been privatized in frames of the program.

The development of motor transport of Azerbaijan is connected with the name and work of the national leader of the Republic of Azerbaijan Heydar Aliyev.
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